italian destroyers ww2

Italian semovente L6/40 - 47/32 gun Mais. Then an attempt to design “exploratori”, destroyer leaders used as scouts, and third, the definition of a brand new design in 1930 and homogeneous series right up to 1942 and the new Medaglie d’Oro class. The large destroyer concept was revived in the mid-1920s, in response to new French designs. Until the 1912 Indomito class, the previous designs were glorified high seas TBs, with a low, continuous hull with a front tumblehome, three stackers of 400 tons with ligh 3in guns and three TTs. These twin-funneled ships of 1914, displacing 1012 tons, Gugliemo Pepe and Alessandro Poerio survived WW1 and were employed for most of the interwar, but by 1938 both were ceded by Mussolini to the Spanish Nationalist, joining the Armada against the Republicans. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours. In 1939-40, their 13.2 mm Breda machine gun mounts were replaced by five 20mm cannons, and two Deep-charges. Both Mirabello in 1916, and the three Leone class of 1923 were pretty close in terms of their general conception, the Leone being larger and heavier. There will be a dedicated post about them soon. In destroyer terms in the early 1920s, the ships of this class were powerful vessels, displacing 2,300 tons[2] and armed with eight four inch guns in single mounts, 450 millimetres (17.7) inch torpedoes, depth charges and mines. Audace, the first of this name was sunk in 1916. 37 mm. Covering all major warship classes of the Second World War mainly looking at their intended pre-war role and what missions they actually performed. 16th - Action of Sfax, Tunisia - Capt P. J. Mack with destroyers "Janus", "Jervis", "Mohawk" and "Nubian" sailing from Malta intercepted a German Afrika Korps convoy of five transports escorted by three Italian destroyers off Kerkennah Islands, east of Tunisia. M10 Tank Destroyer of the 818th Tank Destroyer Bn., supports 5th Infantry Division troops, near Fountainebleau, France, 23 August 1944. The remaining two were stationed in the Aegean for much of the war. They formed, without a doubt, the backbone of the Italian navy right up to Italy’s surrender in late 1943. All were lost by early April 1941, when Massawa fell. Typical 1936 Transalpine destroyers were about the same tonnage but a bit smaller, with their armement concentrated in twin turret, whereas the French had them spread between decks and raised platforms, compact, relatively low superstructures, and single funnels. The Navigatori class (12 ships, 1928-29) was meteoritic. April 6 – Mussolini meets with Hitler in Austria. Italian destroyers were to pay a high price for these oversights, but they fought bravely and doggedly. The Italian government was notified of the discovery and of the location and data to confirm the identity of the wreckage. It's the wreckage of the Italian destroyer: Artigliere RM. Also Regia Marina operated captured ships: They were captured from either France or Yugoslavia: The Premuda was the former Yugoslav destroyer Dubrovnik, captured in April 1941, a very capable unit, one of the most impressive destroyers ever built, two Beograd class former Yugoslav destroyers captured in April 1941 and French DDs that were scuttled at Toulon and later salvaged and repaired (the immense majority simply could not): FR 22 – former French destroyer of the Chacal class, and two of the Guépard class, FR 21 and FR 24, and FR 31 – former French destroyer of the Bourrasque class. Grecale in 1942, rear view – Associazione Venus. Specifications Displacement 1,900 t. standard -2,580 t. Full Load Dimensions 109.30 m long, 11 m wide, 3.40 m draft Machines 2 propellers, 2 Parsons turbines, 8 Tosi boilers, 50,000 hp. The Italian Navy played an important role for the Axis powers in the Mediterranean Theater during the early part of World War 2 - but faltered later in the conflict. In addition, these ships suffered from a lack of stability so grave that they had ballasts added to about 90 tons, curtailing their speed to 30-31 knots. Destroyers, in particular, were utility ships in all the navies of World War II. If design only was a consideration, the Italians would win this match, with better looking, more modern ships. All were lost during the conflict, including two scuttled by the Germans. In line with the Turbine, the four destroyers of the Freccia class, launched in 1930-32 and completed in 1931-33, Dardo, Freccia, Saetta, and Strale, were faster to be able to intervene with the last Italian cruisers, capable of 40 knots. Three ships of this class were commissioned in 1916-17 as "exploratori", but one was lost in the Black Sea in 1920. As a result at official trials, they happily reached 42 knots, even 45, which in 1930 was still rare for this type of ship. WW2 Italian Destroyers were still called cacciatorpediniere, “torpedo boat hunters”, the... Genesis: Early Italian destroyer development. In 1941, the appropriately named Scirocco foundered in a storm off Cape Spartivento. 23 June –Italian submarine Torricelli sinks British destroyer HMS Khartoum off Eritrea. [2] As completed, these ships had a single 120 millimetre (4.7 inch) gun, four 533 millimetre (21 inch) torpedo tubes, two 40 millimetre and two 13.2 millimetre guns. At the time of the Tunisian campaign when allied domination became prevalent (The Battle of Skerki Bank show the loss of 1,500 soldiers in one night) and confidence in trying to defend troop transports led to transport troops directly on destroyers instead. Antiaircraft artillery was deficient at the beginning of the war, as usual in all other navies. Destroyer escort (DE) was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a 20-knot (23 mph) warship designed with endurance to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships. Combat tanks providing the basis for dedicated tank destroyers … Turbine sacrificed her rear torpedo tube bank for two 37mm/54 AA guns. Leone Memorable Flag. The designation "exploratori", meaning "scouts", was originally given to a class of Italian warship that were between the then current destroyers and cruisers, in terms of size and firepower. Inactive in 1943 in Venice, she was captured by the Germans and was sunk in action in November 1944 under as TA 20 near Zara, by two British destroyers, HMS Wheatland and Avon Vale. Despite their design origins with the Turbine class, various changes resulted in the displacement, as originally built, increasing to 2,150 tonnes[2] These changes included a larger hull, remodelled bridge and had their engine exhausts trunked to a single funnel. The Sella were based at the island of Leros, in the Dodecanese. In 1941 she lost a funnel, and was taken in hands and refitted with a single 102mm/45 gun, and a modern AA comprising four single 20mm and two twin 13.2 mm HMG mounts. [7], Eight 1,700 tonne[2] Turbine class destroyers were commissioned in 1927 and 1928. The latter managed to restart their construction, and in 1944 launched Commandante Margottini, which remained uncompleted but was eventually loaded with explosives in the port of La Speziato be scuttled. In the last Royal Navy destroyer action of the Mediterranean, torpedo boats "TA-24" and "TA-29" were sun k. They were reclassified as destroyers by 1940. [9], As originally built, the Navigatori ships were insufficiently stable and too wet. The obsolete 40mm anti-aircraft guns were finally discontinued, being replaced by extra 13.2mm machine guns; otherwise armament was unchanged. 16 June – Italian destroyers sink British submarine HMS Grampus. These ships existed in four classes, Tripoli (1), Goito (2), Partenope (8) and Agordat (2) ranging from 833 to 1290 tons. A new discovery has been done by Paul G. Allen and his research team on boarding of R/V Petrel, his new research vessel outfitted with the latest deep sea exploration technology. Two more 20mm and two depth charge throwers were added. Most were camouflaged with typical angular pattern of black spots on blue waves and light grey background. The remaining two ships were not completed before the surrender; one was scrapped while under construction and the final one was completed under German colours. Power output was substantially increased, in order to deliver the desired speed. [8], All of the class were based at Tobruk, north Africa, and used to lay minefields and run supplies from Italy. [3], The Mirabello's design reflected their age and when Italy entered the war, they were used to lay minefields off Taranto and to escort convoys to Albania and Greece, relatively "safe" duties. In 1943, the Grecale and Maestrale were cleared of their rear torpedo tube bank, replaced by two 37 mm AA guns. Comparisons being inevitable at this point, French and Italian designs diverged a lot however. Author’s illustration of the Saetta, Freccia class. This is a list of destroyers of the Second World War.1234 The List of ships of the Second World War contains major military vessels of the war, arranged alphabetically and by type. As a result, the same modifications were applied. Destroyer Bersagliere in 1942 (Soldati class), showing the “wavy dark grey pattern” alternative to the standard Mediterranean angular type camouflage. Before the end of the war, one ship, Oriani had German Seetakt radar and additional 20mm cannon. They retained essentially all the features of the Oriani, including the hull, and had enlarged superstructures, and on some, an additional 120 mm gun in a central position, standard or flare gun (15 caliber mortar instead of 50). She was used for many duties, starting as a target for submarines in Pola, then an Adriatic escort vessel. She duelled with destroyers HMS Termagant and Tuscan off Skiathos (Aegean), ran aground near Volos and was scuttled. They also spent much of their time escorting north African convoys, on which duties they were all lost before the Italian surrender. The Maestrale was sunk in November 19843 in the harbor of Genoa, and refloated, repaired by the Germans, damaged again, and refloated a second time in April 1945. High quality Tank Destroyer gifts and merchandise. They were all seized by the Germans, but no progress was made and they ended broken up on slipways after the war. The Sella class (Crispi, Sella, Ricasoli, Nicotera), and Sauro class (Battsiti, Manin, Nullo, Sauro) were started in 1925-26, according to two substantially different designs. One ship, Fuciliere, had an Italian Gufo radar set installed in 1943.[16]. of 13.2 AA, 6 TLT 533 mm (2 × 3), 2 ASM mortars Crew: 206, Oriani and her crew, 1945, then on the side of the allies, notice the dark hull paint. A wide variety of these tanks were derived chiefly from the standard medium tank chassis, and the light tank L6 as well. Displacement was increased thereby and speed significantly reduced. In fact the majority of the 77,741 troops landed in Tunisia between November 1942 and May 1943, 52,000 were carried by destroyers with about 700 losses only. There were also large destroyers of the older Mirabello and Leone classes, which, due to their older design, were kept to less dangerous tasks. Similarly, they were equipped with four ASW mortars. [2] The one major alteration was to reduce beam in order to improve their speed, this resulted in reduced fuel capacity and, consequently, their range. [3], Three Leone-class "exploratori" were commissioned in 1924. WW2 brought a whole new level in ASW warfare, but dedicated vessels were gradually preferred for escort duties rather than the versatile and costly destroyers. Not only was the weight of armour increased by 24 per cent compared with d'Aosta, now totalling some 2,131 tons, but it was also distributed ih a different manner. In World War Two this class was used mainly to escort the major units in the fleet service, and this fact reduced the losses during the war respect to other destroyer classes. A very large destroyer in comparison with her contemporaries, officially classified as a "light scout" for a long time. The Italian rescue ships had formed a column, led by one destroyer and followed by the heavy cruisers Zara and Fiume, which were then followed by the three remaining destroyers. These were the Turbine, Aquilone, Borea, Espero, Euro, Nembo, Ostro, and Zeffiro. After an abortive mission against Port Sudan, Pantera was sunk by carrier-based Swordfish aircraft and Tigre was later scuttled. The Nullo was sunk in 1940, the Schiaffino in 1941 and the Bronzetti in 1945. The Soldati. These ships were reclassified as torpedo boats from 1921 but has been discarded well before the second world war. They no longer had the excessive roll problems of the previous ones, and this allowed to re-equip them with heavier machines, more efficient in the end. WW2 Italian Destroyers Italy (1916-43) About 60 ships. This ship single-handily duelled against four allied destroyers in the difficult escort route between Italy and North Africa. However in operation, this speed was rarely reached. The two ships of 1916 were designed as flotilla leaders. Power went from 36,000 to 40,000 hp, speed maintained to 36 knots. Italian DDs fought British ships until the fall of 1943. They are armed for multiple threat missions. The increase in power, however, disappointed in that there was only a marginal speed improvement. Their main weaknesses were lack of anti-aircraft on their ships, so a full naval invasion would be stopped by French Air Force. These 885 tons ships were all in service, although reclassified as torpedo-boats. In the latter case they carried the explosive motorboats that seriously damaged HMS York at Suda Bay. Italian destroyer Bersagliere (1938) Language; ... Bersagliere was one of nineteen Soldati-class destroyers built for the Regia Marina (Royal Italian Navy) in the late 1930s and early 1940s. Eight participated in WW1, the rest being discarded before. Specifications Displacement: 1675 t. standard -2254 t. Full Load Dimensions 106.7 m long, 10.15 m wide, 3.42 m draft Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 Parsons turbines, 3 boilers triple exp., 48,000 hp. Allied destroyers were engaged in the Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, North and Mediterranean seas. In 1938, they were given additional 13.2 mm Breda (.5 cal) heavy machine guns and in 1943, Augusto Riboty (Mirabello class) received additional 20 mm guns instead of four 102 mm guns. Half the crew of Fiume was busy rigging their ship for tow after seeing Pola ‘s starshell, when, to … Gradually their AA armament was modified, and they first received two twin AA 13.2 mm Breda heavy machine gun stands AA in 1934, and seven to nine 20mm Breda guns from 1940 to 1942. 's board "WW2 Italian Armored Vehicles" on Pinterest. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. III destined for Italian divisions before the armistice.. At the start of World War II, Italian destroyers (Italian: caccia-torpedinieri) were a mix of warships dating from old, World War I designs up to some of the most modern of their type in the world. Seven modified Soldati class were ordered in 1940 and laid down in late 1940–41. Indeed all surviving DDs that were not the interned in Malta following the armistice had been captured by the Germans and often integrated into the Kriegsmarine which badly needed ships in this theater of Operations. Unfortunately, when the armistice came up, none were completed. Like the Curtatone, in 1938, they became torpedo boats. During World War II, several programmes were started to upgrade weaponry, in particular anti-aircraft weapons, but none were applied uniformly to all ships in the class. The various successful engagements by Italian armored divisions are mainly due to the courage of the tank crews in aggressively engaging a superior force. Their armament was upgraded from that of the preceding Mirabellos and the resultant additional topweight required increases in dimensions and displacement (2,690 tonnes[2]) and the machinery was also significantly uprated to maintain speed. However, one of the second group was neither launched nor finished because of lack of equipment and men. It's the wreckage of the Italian destroyer: Artigliere RM. One torpedo tube mounting was replaced by two 37mm guns; 20mm cannon, a 120mm star-shell gun and depth charge throwers were also installed. The new leader of Italy, Benito Mussolini, combined an authoritarian approach to … The last wartime design studied by Italy, of which 9 were laid down and none completed, was the Commandante Medaglie d’Oro. [11], The four Folgores, commissioned between June and September 1932, were modified Freccias and they are sometimes included in that class as the "second group". Displacement: 2 200 t. Standard -2 600 t. Fully LoaddedDimensions: 112 m x 10 m x 2 mPowerplant: 2 Parsons turbines, 8 Yarrow boilers, 50 000 hp.Top speed: 32 knotsArmament: 8 x 102mm, 2 x 40mm, 8 x 13.2mm AA, 6 x 533 mm (2×3) TTsCrew: 210. Although inspired by the Palestro and Curtatone of 1919-23, they were enlarged and reinforced to swap to an armament of 120 mm guns instead of 102 mm, and “standard” 533 mm torpedo tubes instead of the old 457 mm. The Regia Marina also operated some destroyers built for foreign navies, captured from either France or Yugoslavia. With almost double the displacement, and a better armament with an extra 120 mm pair in the center, and better distributed rearranged TT banks, they were even faster at 38 knots. Their anti-aircraft gunnery was similarly improved. Da Recco was the only one of this class to survive the conflict, and was disarmed in 1954. Review of the Royal Navy Destroyer fleet at the outbreak of WW2 Throughout the long campaign in Italy, then through France and the Low Countries, the tank destroyer units had a number of moments to shine as tank destroyers; at Arracourt, in France, on September 19th 1944, the 704th TD battalion in support of the 4th Armored Division destroyed 15 tanks of the German 113th Panzer brigade while in a dense fog; during the Ardennes offensive … Five ships had an additional single 120mm gun (Ansaldo 1940 pattern) to replace their star-shell gun. The design was modified to incorporate war experience and their hulled was lengthened by 4.5 m. The ships were modernized as escort vessels during the war with single mounts, and the triple 450 mm torpedo tubes replaced by twin 533 mm ones, plus additional Breda 13mm heavy MGs while the old 76 mm/40 AA guns were removed. The bulk of the actions occured with the more modern ships attached to the vital route between Italy and North Africa. They were effectively a repeat of the preceding Maestrales with an increased engine power. As originally built, the class retained the older anti-aircraft fit of two 40mm and four 13.2mm guns. The later ships were primarily employed as fleet escorts, but not exclusively so. Three were lost before the Italian surrender and one, Dardo, was captured by the Germans (renamed TA31). The Riboty survived the conflict and although offered to Russia in war damage, was refused and broken up in Italy in 1951. Leone Italian Tier VI Destroyer 1924. The Mirabello was sunk by a mine in 1941. Italian destroyers carried out 535 escort missions, 301 transport missions and 132 minelaying missions (4,093 mines in all) and paid a heavy price in these contested waters, with forty-tree were sunk (on 59) until September 1943 and 15 after the Armistice of Cassibile, mostly scuttled. Despite the fact the concept of torpedo boat was arguably obsolete in 1940, the Italians sticked to it and was probably the only Nation to rely on them so heavily. In a heroic fight against four English destroyers, Luca Tarigo (LT) managed to sink HMS Mohawk before disappearing under the waves herself. They also varied in size from enlarged torpedo-boats to exploratori (an Italian designation for large destroyers approaching light cruiser size). The class comprised the Calatafimi (1923), Castelfidardo (1922), Curtatone (1922) and Monzambano (1923). The three Leone (also Pantera, Tigre) received a few 13.2 mm heavy machine gun twin mounts and were used actively during the conflict. There are a total of [ 20 ] WW2 Italian Warships and Submarines entries in the Military Factory. These will partly inspire Italian destroyers after the war. Illustration of the Navigatori class by the author. This class of destroyer was pretty much the backbone of the WW2 Italian Regia Marina's destroyer forces. She was damaged by a British plane in August 1944, was repaired and then served until 5.11.1944 when she was sunk by an American aerial torpedo. The designation "exploratori", meaning "scouts", was originally given to a class of Italian warship that were between the then current destroyers and cruisers, in terms of size and firepower. They were all sunk in combat, except the Cascino and Montanari, scuttled in 1943 and 1944. But like other navies the Regia Marina ventured into torpedo boats early on, also puchasing Thornycroft, Yarrow and Schichau models in the 1880-90s. Of all the losses, ten were sunk by surface warships, and 42 by other causes, showing that classic naval surface engagement was already a thing of the past. [16], In 1940–41, the second, aft, directories were removed from those ships that had them. The Aquila were sold to Romania and Spain, the others participated actively in WW2. Displacement was marginally reduced at 2,130 tonnes. In addition, Turbine had one triple torpedo tube mounting replaced by a 37mm gun. WW2 Italian Destroyers; WW2 Italian Submarines; Mare Nostrum “Mare Nostrum”: This ancient motto known to the Greeks Byzantines and Turks was the embodiment of the a navy dreamed by Mussolini. One large Italian, formation composed by two battleships Cesare and Cavour (illustrated to side), by 16 cruisers and 18 destroyers, after to have escorted a convoy to Bengasi, is going to Taranto.The English fleet is going towards Malta, where a convoy is waiting for it, when the two adversaries come to know the respective positions. Vivaldi was sunk in November 1943, when preparing to cross Gibraltar, by German coastal batteries. Italy also operated the war reparation ships, the ex-V116 called Premuda and ex G97 called Cesare Rossarol. See more ideas about italian army, italian tanks, world war ii. Engines and armament, as completed, were unchanged from the Dardos, but a later version of the 120mm gun was used, the O.T.O. There were 19 ships built in this class up to 1943, along with along with 11 other classes and the fact that there were 2 batches of this ship class that had minor differences. She lost her torpedo tubes and won 20 single 20 mm AA guns. They were plenty space to improve antiaircraft and ASW weapons and to mount mine rails. The fact is, with the fall of France, no Italian Destroyer had ever to fight its French opponents. And ex G97 called Cesare Rossarol 1920s derived from the standard medium tank chassis, and depth... The adoption of the Army of twelve machine guns ; otherwise armament was unchanged full...., although reclassified as TBs from 1929 Army Afrika Korps 37mm cannons and three 20mm double mounts were... Two fire directors had more modern ships attached to the courage of the gun... 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